A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 Transmitter Based on a Ring-Resonator Optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS

The next generations of large-scale data-centers and supercomputers demand optical interconnects to migrate to 400G and beyond. Microring modulators in silicon-photonics VLSI chips are promising devices to meet this demand due to their energy efficiency and compatibility with dense wavelength division multiplexed chip-to-chip optical I/O.

Ultra-Efficient CMOS Fiber-to-Chip Grating Couplers

Apodized bi-level fiber-to-chip grating couplers, designed using a complex-wavevector band-structure approach, are demonstrated in a commercially available, monolithic SOI CMOS process achieving 92% (−0.36dB) coupling efficiency.

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